Never before has it been more necessary to recover the past, to
deepen our knowledge of history, to demystify the origins of
our problems, to regain our memory of forms of freedom and
advances that were made in liberating humanity of its
superstitions, irrationalities, and, above all, a loss of faith in
Human beings have never been without history. In the paradoxical formulation of phenomenology, the only unchanging structure of human existence is its capacity to change and evolve—its “historicity.” According to philosophical anthropology, human beings differ from “merely” natural beings because their existence is not limited only to instinct and passive adaptation to the natural environment. Rather, human existence is socially and linguistically mediated, consciously created and defined, and changes throughout time. A critical and comparative review of key ideas of Marx, Foucault, and Habermas. The book illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of each thinker’s theory for the analysis of history and society, relating the work of each to current debates over modern and postmodern theory.