The duality mind-body has ancient roots in philosophy, most notably with Plato, Descartes, and others. In dualism, the mind and body are contrasted as two are different realms. However, the interaction between them has been approached from different philosophical perspectives. The main views through which this relationship has been explored are: interactionism (the view that mind and body, or mental and physical events, influence each other), epiphenomenalism (the theory that mental events are caused by physical events, but without influence on the physical – this theory has encountered a lot of criticism, however), and parallelism (the view that there is no causal interaction between the two realms).
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