Author Archives: Giorgio Bertini

About Giorgio Bertini

Director at Learning Change Project - Research on society, culture, art, neuroscience, cognition, critical thinking, intelligence, creativity, autopoiesis, self-organization, rhizomes, complexity, systems, networks, leadership, sustainability, thinkers, futures ++

The Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit of Understanding

Epistemology has for a long time focused on the concept of knowledge and tried to answer questions such as whether knowledge is possible and how much of it there is. Often missing from this inquiry, however, is a discussion on … Continue reading

Posted in Epistemology, knowledge, understanding | Tagged , ,

The Analysis of Knowledge

For any person, there are some things they know, and some things they don’t. What exactly is the difference? What does it take to know something? It’s not enough just to believe it—we don’t know the things were wrong about. … Continue reading

Posted in Epistemology, knowledge | Tagged ,

Self-Knowledge and Knowledge of the Self

In philosophy, “self-knowledge” standardly refers to knowledge of one’s own sensations, thoughts, beliefs, and other mental states. At least since Descartes, most philosophers have believed that our knowledge of our own mental states differs markedly from our knowledge of the … Continue reading

Posted in knowledge, Self, Self-Knowledge | Tagged , ,


Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. As the study of knowledge, epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure, … Continue reading

Posted in Epistemology | Tagged

German Idealism and the philosophy of music

German Idealism began with Leibniz and lasted until Schopenhauer, with a few central European after-shocks in the work of Husserl and his followers. That great epoch in German philosophy coincided with a great epoch in German music. It is scarcely … Continue reading

Posted in German Idealism, Philosophy of music | Tagged ,

A Neuro-Philosophy of History: “Sustainable History”; with Dignity, and without Directionality

Philosophies of history tend to assume one form or another of directionality. For an important number of philosophers, History has been understood to have a definite trajectory, moving forward to some specified end-state. These end-states have varied, from idealized conceptions … Continue reading

Posted in History, Neuro-Philosophy | Tagged ,

A Neuro-Philosophy of Dignity-Based Governance

The duality mind-body has ancient roots in philosophy, most notably with Plato, Descartes, and others. In dualism, the mind and body are contrasted as two are different realms. However, the interaction between them has been approached from different philosophical perspectives. … Continue reading

Posted in governance, Neuro-Philosophy | Tagged ,

A Neuro-Philosophy of Human Nature: Emotional Amoral Egoism and the Five Motivators of Humankind

In 1893, at an event in Oxford, biologist Thomas Henry Huxley (and staunch supporter of Darwin’s ideas – support which earned him the nickname “Darwin’s bulldog”) laid out his theory of human nature and morality. His theory posited that the … Continue reading

Posted in human nature, human psychology, Neuro-Philosophy | Tagged , ,

Problems, philosophy and politics of climate science

This book is a critical appraisal of the status of the so-called Climate Sciences (CS). These are contributed by many other basic sciences like physics, geology, chemistry and as such employ theoretical and experimental methods. In the last few decades, … Continue reading

Posted in climate change, Philosophy | Tagged ,

Philosophers and Climate Change

Philosophers are uniquely positioned to help stop the worst effects of climate change. Most teachers have the ear of large numbers of students, whose interests and priorities we help to shape. Many teachers at the college and university level decide … Continue reading

Posted in climate change, Philosophers | Tagged ,